Preface: User Account Control (UAC) is a fundamental component of Microsoft’s overall security vision. UAC helps mitigate the impact of malware.
Synopsis: UAC Bypass Using eventvwr.exe was exploited by malware in 2017. Microsoft fixes Eventvwr.exe UAC Bypass Exploit in Windows 10 Creators Update. In Windows 10 Creators Update preview build 15007, Microsoft seems to have fixed the UAC bypass method involving eventvwr.exe. But the investigator still discovered similar of UAC bypass exploit technique was used by ransomware. In April of 2019, expert found a new type of ransomware named Sodinokibi. Their design utilize a module loaded into memory functions as a loader on phase 1. Meanwhile it will try to conduct UAC bypass if the processes privileges are insufficient.
The mechanism of UAC bypass technique not limit to use eventvwr.exe. The attacker can writes itself to the registry key (Software\Classes\mscfile\shell\open\command) and launches a new instance of explorer.exe to execute compmgmtlauncher.exe. Whereby it executes anything configured in the registry key Software\Classes\mscfile\shell\open\command\ then execute a script (see above diagram).
So, we have a basic concept that if we only following vendor announcement conduct a patch management will not be a efficient technique to protect your machine avoid ransomware attack.
Objectives and definitions for establishing light weapons: In order to avoid the detection of the anti-malware mechanism, quite a lot of notorious APT malware will be relied on design weakness of UAC. As a result, it can bypass the access control, meanwhile it can significant increase the successful rate of the phase one of cyber attack because it bring the difficulties to the defense mechanism. The fact is that only detect a simple script or code not easy to predict what the intention was. When Wannacry ransomware was born, perhaps the design goal is SMB vulnerability. But it lack of competence of the attack strategy. Whereby, when ransomware take the action to deleting the shadow copies of the system requires local administrator rights the User Account Control will prompt the user for allowing elevated privileges in order to execute the operation (see below diagram). So it alert the end user something will be happened when it click. Therefore the new generation of ransomware try to management this design weakness.
Ransomware author leverage UAC Bypass technique: A novel technique, Dridex User Account Control (UAC) bypass method characterized by its use of recdisc[.]exe, a Windows default recovery disc executable, and its loading of malicious code via impersonated SPP[.]dll. Perhaps you might say, this vulnerability has been fixed by Microsoft. But the market feedback is as follow:
Microsoft doesn’t consider UAC a security barrier, and thus they often don’t fix UAC bypasses. These bypasses are common and easy. The following figure shows another scenario of UAC bypass. Let’s open our eyes and see what happens in the evolving world of cybersecurity?
Additional topic: I am wishing that the Coronavirus will be gone in next morning. Perhaps it was not possible but such punishment to man kind that has been enough!
Preface: The biggest differentiator between CIAM and regular (internal) IAM is that in CIAM the consumers of the service manage their own accounts and profile data.
Background: FusionAuth provides all of the features you need without the need to code plugins or purchase an enterprise license. It also capable for SaaS architecture provides maximum flexibility when it comes to deployment. You can also choose the type of database to use and the OS to install on.
Vulnerability details: Who have privileges to modify templates, instead of system admin or root. They can exploit this feature to conduct a Remote Command Execution. Vendor has alert to the user with the following statement. BE CAREFUL! this tag, depending on use, may allow you to set something up so that users of your web application could run arbitrary code on your server. This can only happen if you allow unchecked GET/POST submissions to be used as the command string in the exec tag.
Remedy: This vulnerability has been fixed in version 1.11 of FusionAuth.
Preface: You found an error in somewhere, sometimes will be expanded your idea of thinking.
Synopsis: Ws2ifsl.sys is found in the C:\Windows\System32\drivers directory. In many cases, a driver creates a symbolic link and its name can be used as a file name for CreateFileA, but this is not the case with ws2ifsl. It only calls nt!IoCreateDevicewith the DeviceName set to ‘\Device\WS2IFSL’. IoCreateDevice creates a device object and returns a pointer to the object. The caller is responsible for deleting the object when it is no longer needed by calling IoDeleteDevice.
Vulnerability details: An elevation of privilege vulnerability exists in the way that ws2ifsl.sys (Winsock) handles objects in memory, aka ‘Windows Elevation of Privilege Vulnerability’. This CVE ID is unique from CVE-2019-1253, CVE-2019-1278, CVE-2019-1303.
Patch analysis: According to Microsoft patched version (10.0.18362.356). We can see the patched features: – CreateProcessFile – Delivery closed – Signal cancelled – Signal requirements – RequestRundownRoutine – CancelRundownRoutine
Under my observation: If a device name is not supplied (that is, DeviceName is NULL), the device object created by IoCreateDevice will not (and cannot) have a discretionary access control list (DACL) associated with it. Do you think this issue will give an oppuntunity let attacker to exploit?
Technical Background: How to manages a CDE session? The dtsession command provides session management functionality, compliant with ICCCM 1.1, during a user session, from login to logout. It starts a window manager and allows users to save a session, restore a session, lock a session, start screen savers, and allocate colors for desktop-compatible clients.
Vulnerability details: A buffer overflow in the CheckMonitor() function in the Common Desktop. It allows local users to gain root privileges via a long palette name passed to dtsession in a malicious .Xdefaults file (CVE-2020-2696).
All Official Ubuntu variants 12.04 – 18.04
Debian 6, 7, 8, 9
Fedora 17 at least
FreeBSD 9.2, 10.x, 11.x
openSUSE Tumbleweed (gcc7)
openSUSE Leap 4.2 (gcc4)
SUSE 12 SP3 (gcc4)
Remedy: The open source CDE 2.x version have issued the following patches for this vulnerability:
Preface: Arbitrary File Upload but require regular user sign in. Perhaps it lose the access control!
Product description: NewsOne is a web based application and fully responsive news & magazine script. Anyone can start your own media/press website with just few clicks without any codding knowledge.
Vulnerability details: Auth as a regular user. Go to specify URL (see attached diagram) and upload any file you want via <input type=”file” name=”user_image”> field. From security point of view, An attacker can use this vulnerability to perform a variety of malicious activities, including defacement, disclosure, and malware infection.
Background: crypt32.dll is a type of DLL file, with extension of .dll. It is associated with Crypto API32 and is used to run Crypto API32 based applications. Certain sophisticated video games and software applications use crypt32.dll to get access to certain API functionality, as provided by Windows.
Vulnerability details: The bug exploits crypt32.dll signature verification on elliptic curve. crypt32.dll only checks for matching public key and parameters, but not the generator G. An attacker could use your public certificate without owning its private key, combined with some other code-signing certificate issued to someone else, to bypass a publisher check this way.
Special comment: Do you think this vulnerability has relationship with surveillance program?
Preface: A race condition allows an attacker to access a shared resource, which can lead to an attack by other participants using the resource.
Background: VMware Tools is a set of services and modules that enable several features in VMware products for better management of, and seamless user interactions with, guests operating systems.
Vulnerability details: The attacker can exploit this vulnerability because standard user entitled write permission from the directory. Apart from that this Common Agent Framework (CAF) subdirectory inherit the priviliges access control.
Remedy: To remediate this issue, it is recommended to upgrade VMware Tools to 11.0.0 or later. However, if upgrading is not possible, exploitation of this issue can be prevented by correcting the ACLs on “C:\ProgramData\VMware\VMware CAF” directory in the Windows guests running VMware Tools 10.x.y versions. In order to correct ACLs for this directory, remove all write access permissions for Standard User from the directory.
Disable inheritance, remove all inherited permissions, grant “Full control” to local System account and Administrators group Correct the ACL from the Windows UI via Properties of the directory.
Technical background: A layer 7 load-balancer takes routing decision based on IPs, TCP or UDP ports or any information it can get from the application protocol (mainly HTTP). It is a Linux operating system based of machine. HTTP and HTTPS are the predominant Layer 7 protocol for website traffic on the Internet. A path traversal attack (also known as directory traversal) aims to access files and directories that are stored outside the web root folder.
Vulnerability: An issue was discovered in Citrix Application Delivery Controller (formly Netscaler) and Gateway 10.5, 11.1, 12.0, 12.1, and 13.0. They allow Directory Traversal. If this vulnerability exploited, could allow an unauthenticated attacker to perform arbitrary code execution. The fact is that it will impact the back end, perhaps it is a web portal or web server cluster. The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) has released a utility to conduct a test on specific product.
Preface: kdump is a feature of the Linux kernel that creates crash dumps in the event of a kernel crash. When triggered, kdump exports a memory image (also known as vmcore) that can be analyzed for the purposes of debugging and determining the cause of a crash.
Vulnerability details: Improper handling of specific IPv6 packets sent by clients mbuf and let memory leak occurs. This memory leak eventually leads to a kernel crash (vmcore), or the device hanging and requiring a power cycle to restore service, creating a Denial of Service (DoS) condition.
Preface: REST APIs are stateless. Stateful APIs do not adhere to the REST architectural style.
Background: SOAP is a protocol, and REST is an architectural style. A REST API can actually utilize the SOAP protocol, just like it can use HTTP. The Cisco Fabric Automation REST APIs for third party applications enables you to programmatically control Cisco Fabric Automation. All the REST API operations can also be performed using the DCNM GUI as DCNM uses these REST APIs to render the GUI.
Remark: From Release 10.0(1), by default, the Cisco DCNM supports HTTPS only.
Security Focus: Cisco Data Center Network Manager Authentication Bypass Vulnerabilities
Vulnerability Details: CVE-2019-15975 – Cisco Data Center Network Manager REST API Authentication Bypass Vulnerability CVE-2019-15976 – Cisco Data Center Network Manager SOAP API Authentication Bypass Vulnerability
If hacker already conducted infiltration to specific workstation before DCNM install. It will make this attack scenario straight forward. Because the network traffic before reach SSL tunnel not require any man-in-the-middle technique can capture the traffic. So it is easy to capture all the details through your web browser. The design defect retain a secret key in end point during installation, so hacker can perform arbitrary actions through the REST API with administrative privileges. Since he know the user name and password. Therefore he can create a JSON Web Token and sign it using same secret key. Should you be interested, please read the details of attached diagram.