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City Union Bank in India victim of cyber hack through SWIFT system – Reuters Headline News (19th Feb 2018)

Sounds horrible!

A heist occurred from SWIFT payment system again? Chief Executive Officer N. Kamakodi called it a “conspiracy” involving multiple countries, and added the lender was still investigating how it had happened. But the statement seems not precise to describe.

A fundamental design limitation on original MT 202 message. Perhaps MT 202 COV doing the compensated control. However MT 202 still valid and not end of life yet. A hints input of technical concerns shown on attach picture see whether this is root causes of this incident.

Quote:

When to use the MT 202 COV?

It must only be used to order the movement of funds related to an underlying customer credit transfer that was sent with the cover method.

The MT 202 COV must not be used for any other interbank transfer.

MT 202 design weakness lure financial crime

i. Suspicious activity monitoring on the underlying originator and beneficiary in the message would not be performed.

ii. The originating bank could be in a jurisdiction with different sanction watch lists and the technical capabilities of each bank’s sanction screening program could vary.

City Union Bank in India victim of cyber hack through SWIFT system (19th Feb 2018) – See following URL (Reuters Headline News) for reference.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-city-union-bank-swift/indias-city-union-bank-ceo-says-suffered-cyber-hack-via-swift-system-idUSKCN1G20AF?feedType=RSS&feedName=technologyNews

Heists last year – SWIFT defense solution

Reuters news told that a heist occurred in Russia Bank last year. Unknown hackers stole 339.5 million roubles ($6 million) from a Russian bank last year in an attack using the SWIFT international payments messaging system. Perhaps we are not going speculating the reason to delaying the public announcemnt. Yes, it may be for forensic investigation and trace the hacker silently or protect the reputation. But the design weakness will be replace by new solution soon. For more details, please see below:

Defense solution given by SWIFT:

  • Conventional FIN messages (e.g. MT202) can be used until 16 November 2018. Communication takes place through the SWIFTNet, and the SWIFT FIN service will be used until 16 November 2018.
  • As of 17 November 2018, all participants must use ISO 20022 and the SWIFT InterAct service will be used for communication.

Headline News by Reuters (16th Feb 2018)

https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-russia-cyber-swift/hackers-stole-6-million-from-russian-bank-via-swift-system-central-bank-idUKKCN1G00DV

ISO 20022 for US wire transfer systems Timeline

Remediation step – Saturn Ransomware

Preface:

Can we saying this? it is Google Adwords design flaw? It lure the threat actors go through this service to spread malware from Google search engine.

Quick note:

Saturn ransomware found this month (Feb 2018). It looks strange that attack victim only on physical machine instead of Virtual Machine. Why? Does the threat actor concern about VMware or HyperV have quick data recovery by Snap shot backup? Security expert found the following hints:

Saturn will execute the following commands to delete shadow volume copies, disable Windows startup repair, and to clear the Windows backup catalog.

cmd.exe /C vssadmin.exe delete shadows /all /quiet & wmic.exe shadowcopy delete & bcdedit /set {default} bootstatuspolicy ignoreallfailures & bcdedit /set {default} recoveryenabled no & wbadmin delete catalog -quiet

Perhaps hacker understand that doing ransomware targeting home user will be easier. May be enpterprise firm or cloud services provider contains full scope of SIEM system. As such, forensic investigator can be tracing them. Or this is a prototype may be there is another round of attack later on.

Status updated – 19th Feb 2018

20 antivirus engines detected this ransomware. Hash shown as below:

b3040fe60ac44083ef54e0c5414135dcec3d8282f7e1662e03d24cc18e258a9c

Anyway IT world do not have key words so called permanent solution. In the mean time. The action we can execute is doing the remediation.

Step 1: Start PC in Safe Mode

Through the F8 key (for Windows 7/Vista)

  1. Once the computer is restarted (usually after you hear the first computer beep), continuously tap the F8 key in 1 second intervals. If successful, the Advanced Boot Options menu will appear.
  2. Use the arrow keys to select Safe Mode and press ENTER.

For windows 10

Use the “Shift + Restart” combination. Another way of getting into Safe Mode in Windows 10 is to use the Shift + Restart combination. Open the Start menu and click or tap on the Power button. Then, while keeping the Shift key pressed, click or tap on Restart.

Step 2: Stop Saturn Processes From Windows Task Manager

Step 3: Remove Saturn Ransomware from Control Panel

Procedure 1:

Procedure 2:

Procedure 3:

Main body of the Saturn Ransomware relies browser to work and hide himself in web browser. So we require to uninstall the web browser:

Remark: We are not allow to uninstall or delete Internet Explorer from Windows 7, 8 and 10 and therefore we are going to delete the additional web browser. Since Saturn ransomware relies on web browser for operation.

Step 4: remove Malicious Registry Entries Created by Saturn Ransomware

Step 5: Remove Saturn Ransomware From Infected Internet Explorer

Take Down Saturn Ransomware From Internet Explorer. Open IE and click on Gear Icon from right-top corner in order to open the Tools. Tap on Manage Add-ons option.

Step 6: Reset Internet Explorer Settings

Open IE and click on Tools menu and then select Internet options.

Step 7: Download decryption tool

The decryption tool will not run if:

  • It can’t find a valid ransom note
  • It cannot find a valid encrypted file (i.e a file that is not corrupted)
  • It can’t decrypt the User ID field in the ransom note

End, Thank you.

Additional comment: New ransomware nickname Saturn was born this month. This ransomware provides a hints to me that it is the 1st phase of attack. Or it is a prototype. Perhaps we seen cyber attack, virus, malware and ransomware daily. The cyber world added one more member of bad guy we could not surprised!

UK blames Russia for NotPetya cyber-attack on June 2017

UK blames Russia for NotPetya cyber-attack last year (details shown below url for reference)

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/feb/15/uk-blames-russia-notpetya-cyber-attack-ukraine

MeDoc is widely used among tax accountants in Ukraine, and the software was the main option for accounting for other Ukrainian businesses. Threat actors using email scam counterfeit MeDoc lure victims goal suspend the services of Nuclear power supply facilities operations. Perhaps my observation in June last year found that cyber attacks will turn into military weapons. Should you have interested to collect the details. Below articles will provide hints to you in this regard.

21st century kill chain (logic bomb, cyber bomb and ransomware)

21st century kill chain (logic bomb, cyber bomb and ransomware)

The other side of the story on cyber attack (Electronic war between countries)

The other side of the story on cyber attack (Electronic war between countries)

Potential black force – digitize Godzilla

Potential black force – digitize Godzilla

End session. Thank you.

Status update on 17th Feb 2018

Canada’s Communications Security Establishment, Australia’s Minister for Law Enforcement and Cybersecurity, and New Zealand’s Government Communications Security Bureau followed suit with similar press releases after UK announcement.

Canada CSE announcement (see below url for reference)

https://www.cse-cst.gc.ca/en/media/2018-02-15?lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_profile_view_base_recent_activity_details_shares%3BTFYhDm98SA%2BkEGuW%2Fut2Ig%3D%3D

Australia government announcement (see below url for reference)

http://minister.homeaffairs.gov.au/angustaylor/Pages/notpetya-russia.aspx?lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_profile_view_base_recent_activity_details_shares%3BTFYhDm98SA%2BkEGuW%2Fut2Ig%3D%3D

New Zealand government announcement (see below url for reference)

https://www.gcsb.govt.nz/news/new-zealand-joins-international-condemnation-of-notpetya-cyber-attack/

 

 

 

Adobe Acrobat and Reader CVE-2018-4872 Privilege Escalation

When I was young, I watch the ali baba movie a unforgettable mystery slogan. Yes, it is open sesame. A magic master come out. Perhaps my life journey told me that this is not true. We now living in electronic world. Open electronic file daily like habit forming sequence. It looks that my dream come true today. A PDF document embedded with Privilege Escalation function valid in Adobe reader. But I did not said open sesame slogan!

The similar type of Privilege Escalation vulnerability occurred in 2015 (CVE-2015-4438). The privilege escalation vulnerability repeat this week. IT guy, Life is not easy!

Synopsis:

A privilege escalation vulnerability has been reported in Adobe Acrobat and Reader. The vulnerability is due to an error in Adobe Acrobat or Reader while parsing a specially crafted PDF file. A remote attacker can exploit this issue by enticing a victim to open a specially crafted PDF file.

Below url is the official announcement provides by Adobe.

https://helpx.adobe.com/security/products/acrobat/apsb18-02.html

Special Edition – HIDDEN COBRA – Malicious Cyber Activity

Special Edition: Information security focus

US Homeland security (DHS) urge the world to staying alert with HIDDEN COBRA Malicious Cyber Activity. It looks that the cyber attack wreak havoc to the world. And therefore DHS suggest to add below Yara rule into your IDS or malware detector (For instance RSA ECAT).

The following YARA rule may be used to detect the proxy tools:

rule NK_SSL_PROXY{
meta:
Author = "US-CERT Code Analysis Team"
Date = "2018/01/09"
MD5_1 = "C6F78AD187C365D117CACBEE140F6230"
MD5_2 = "C01DC42F65ACAF1C917C0CC29BA63ADC"
Info= "Detects NK SSL PROXY"
strings:
$s0 = {8B4C24088A140880F24780C228881408403BC67CEF5E}
$s1 = {568B74240C33C085F67E158B4C24088A140880EA2880F247881408403BC67CEF5E}
$s2 = {4775401F713435747975366867766869375E2524736466}
$s3 = {67686667686A75797566676467667472}
$s4 = {6D2A5E265E676866676534776572}
$s5 = {3171617A5853444332337765}
$s6 = "ghfghjuyufgdgftr"
$s7 = "q45tyu6hgvhi7^%$sdf"
$s8 = "m*^&^ghfge4wer"
condition:
($s0 and $s1 and $s2 and $s3 and $s4 and $s5) or ($s6 and $s7 and $s8)
}

There are total 2 items of malware would like to draw your considerations.

  • Trojan: HARDRAIN (Backdoor – Remote Access Tool)
  • Trojan: BADCALL (data thief and surveillance)

In order to avoid unforeseen data breach happens to enterprise firm and personal data privacy protection. We better to consider the suggestion by DHS.

  • Maintain up-to-date antivirus signatures and engines.
  • Restrict users’ ability (permissions) to run unwanted software applications
  • Enforce a strong password policy and
  • implement regular password changes.
  • Exercise caution when opening e-mail attachments even if the attachment is expected and the sender appears to be known.
  • Keep operating system patches up-to-date.
  • Enable a personal firewall on agency workstations.
  • Disable unnecessary services on agency workstations and servers.
  • Scan for and remove suspicious e-mail attachments; ensure the scanned attachment is its “true file type” (i.e., the extension matches the file header).
  • Monitor users’ web browsing habits; restrict access to sites with unfavorable content.
  • Exercise caution when using removable media (e.g.,
  • USB thumbdrives, external drives, CDs, etc.).
  • Scan all software downloaded from the Internet prior to executing.
  • Maintain situational awareness of the latest threats; implement appropriate ACLs.

Threat actor transform Vehicle GSM GPRS GPS Tracker Car Vehicle Tracking Locator technology

Since the mobile phone usage volume bigger than personal computer today. Perhaps digital e-wallet function and BYOD concept let people keep their confidential data on mobile phone. And therefore it lure the hacker focusing the mobile phone device especially Android. This round hacker relies on GRPS TCP/UDP connection (see below diagram for reference) create Trojan (BADCALL) to listen for incoming connections to a compromised Android device, on port 60000. Meanwhile it awaken the security concern on GPRS gateway.

Since this is a special edition of article so we summarize the technical details as below:

Trojan: HARDRAIN

  • 32-bit Windows executables that function as Proxy servers and implement a “Fake TLS” infiltration function. The hash shown as below:

3dae0dc356c2b217a452b477c4b1db06 (3DAE0DC356C2B217A452B477C4B1DB06)

746cfecfd348b0751ce36c8f504d2c76 (746CFECFD348B0751CE36C8F504D2C76)

  • Executable Linkable Format (ELF) file designed to run on Android platforms as a fully functioning Remote Access Tool (RAT). The hash shown as below:

9ce9a0b3876aacbf0e8023c97fd0a21d (9CE9A0B3876AACBF0E8023C97FD0A21D)

DHS report for reference:

https://www.us-cert.gov/sites/default/files/publications/MAR-10135536-F.pdf

Trojan: BADCALL (data thief and surveillance)

  • 32-bit Windows executables that function as Proxy servers and implement a “Fake TLS” infiltration function. The hash shown as below:

c01dc42f65acaf1c917c0cc29ba63adc (C01DC42F65ACAF1C917C0CC29BA63ADC)

c6f78ad187c365d117cacbee140f6230 (C6F78AD187C365D117CACBEE140F6230)

  • run on Android platforms as a fully functioning Remote Access Tool (RAT). The hash shown as below:

d93b6a5c04d392fc8ed30375be17beb4 (D93B6A5C04D392FC8ED30375BE17BEB4)

DHS report for reference:

https://www.us-cert.gov/sites/default/files/publications/MAR-10135536-G.PDF

End discussion, thak you for your attention.

Happy valentines day.

Staying alert – vulnerability found on ABRT in 2015 – CVE-2015-1862

As times go by, Linux especially Fedora replace the position of microsoft windows. This status no popular in personal PC however investment bank environement especially broker and forex exchange trading firm might using intensively. A vulnerabiity found on 2015 but the status of fedora bugzilla display that this is not a bug. My idea is that we must staying alert. Bugzilla status shown as below url:

https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1211223

Mew Trend 2018 – Exfiltrating Data via DNS

New Trend 2018 – Exfiltrating data via DNS (see below url for reference)

https://blogs.forcepoint.com/security-labs/udpos-exfiltrating-credit-card-data-dns

Comments: A popular discussion on cyber attack topic this year focusing on DNS attack. Security expert found that threat actor transform DNS topology as a hack tool assists their goal. It show small data set with frequent connections. But the new generation of malware found today looks like a prototype. Why? The fact is that malware relies on executable file instead of hide himself in memory.

My imagination – New way of money laundry evade regulations

We heard turmedous crypto currency heist this year (see below). Do you  think is it a trick? Let’s think it over. The refund of the fees after heist is a grey area of regulator custodian.Since the money is a new sources far away from criminal activities revenue.How to using legal regulation forfeiting their money.Let’s think it over. How to dick out the money on a secure platform. Is it luck or counterfeit message with phishing technique. I believe that this is a old technique. How to evade the legal enforcement proceed legal action to forfeiting their money. End of Jan 2018 – Coincheck $530 million cryptocurrency heist may be biggest ever 2nd week of Feb 2018 – BitGrail Cryptocurrency Exchange Becomes Insolvent After Losing $170 Million.

Feb 2018 – BitGrail Cryptocurrency Exchange Becomes Insolvent After Losing $170 Million:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sb2_ZBcS7NE

Jan 2018 – Coincheck heist discussion:

Doubt – $530 million cryptocurrency heist

Perhaps the Meltdown & Spectre vulnerabilities in CPU equivalent to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?

Preface:

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Background:

On July 2017, Meltdown was discovered independently by Jann Horn from Google’s Project Zero, Werner Haas and Thomas Prescher from Cyberus Technology, as well as Daniel Gruss, Moritz Lipp, Stefan Mangard and Michael Schwarz from Graz University of Technology. The same research teams that discovered Meltdown also discovered a related CPU security vulnerability now called Spectre.

Meltdown is a hardware vulnerability affecting Intel x86 microprocessors, IBM POWER processors, and some ARM-based microprocessors.It allows a rogue process to read all memory, even when it is not authorized to do so.

Spectre is a vulnerability that affects modern microprocessors that perform branch prediction. On most processors, the speculative execution resulting from a branch misprediction may leave observable side effects that may reveal private data to attackers.

Remark: On January 28, 2018, Intel was reported to have shared news of the Meltdown and Spectre security vulnerabilities with Chinese technology companies before notifying the U.S. government of the flaws.

A dramatic development

The CPU manufacturer (AMD) claimed that they are not vulnerable to this design flaw. As a result all we are focus and believe that the flaw only given by Intel. Regarding to this CPU design flaw, there are total of three design flaws. They are Spectre (Types 1 and 2) and Meltdown (Type 3). However AMD Zen core based products are only immune to Meltdown. And therefore they are still under the Spectre flaw finally. The official announcement by AMD shown as below:

The announcement by AMD looks that they are not going to take any action in regards to Spectre. Their situation similar comparing to the operating system and computer relationship. The operation itself do not have feature to avoid virus. As a result, it relies on antivirus program. The CPU vendor (AMD) apply the similar idea of concept to this vulnerability and therefore they transfer the responsibility to OS vendor.

Vendors have begun to roll out OS patches

Microsoft

However so called install the remediation CPU patch looks amazed the windows OS user. I am using window 7 instead of windows 10. Perhaps I just did the windows update this morning. It behind my seen that CPU vulnerability still valid on my PC. The cache-misses as compared to missed-branches data collected from Spectre is possible on my PC (see attached screen-shot for reference).

Perhaps my diagnosis executed on 19th Jan 2018. It can’t tell the truth explicitly. Since at least 3 rounds of patch (patch tuesday) has been executed. In order to protect your windows OS. Please refer to below url for references (Microsoft official announcement)

https://portal.msrc.microsoft.com/en-US/security-guidance

Apple iPhone

Apple iPhone released that patch on 23rd Jan 2018. For more details, please refer to below picture diagram for reference.

Apple computer issue the patch on 8th Jan 2018 only for Spectre attack. The remediation products include iPhone, MacOS and Safari.

macOS High Sierra 10.13.2 Supplemental Update

https://support.apple.com/en-hk/HT208397

Safari 11.0.2 includes security improvements to mitigate the effects of Spectre (CVE-2017-5753 and CVE-2017-5715).

https://support.apple.com/en-hk/HT208403

iOS 11.2.2 includes security improvements to Safari and WebKit to mitigate the effects of Spectre (CVE-2017-5753 and CVE-2017-5715).

https://support.apple.com/en-hk/HT208401

Linux – Retpoline

In order to mitigate against kernel or cross-process memory disclosure (the Spectre attack), OS developer find the following way. A technical definition so called retpoline. A retpoline is a return trampoline that uses an infinite loop that is never executed to prevent the CPU from speculating on the target of an indirect jump. Technical details shown in below url:

Linux https://lkml.org/lkml/2017/11/22/956

The remediation step will be focus on the following protection technique.

ARM (Protection Unit (PU))

The advantages of this system are:

  • Access control held entirely on-chip (no need for any off-chip tables)
  • Provides four levels of access control, cache and write-buffer control
  • Separate control over instruction and data caches.

The disadvantages are:

• Small number of regions

• Restrictions on region size and alignment.

VMware

Even though mitigation plan has been released. For recent chip design weakness, once the patches are applied, developers have to rewrite code to support the patch. Perhaps VMware programming team cannot address the problem in full scale. But you do not have choices if you are a VM users!

VMware Response to Speculative Execution security issues, CVE-2017-5753, CVE-2017-5715, CVE-2017-5754 (aka Spectre and Meltdown) (52245) – see below url for reference.

https://kb.vmware.com/s/article/52245

Cloud platform service provider

AWS – Amazon

As far as I know, Cloud services provides is the earlier customer to receive the patch provided by Intel. The guidelance release to remediate meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities start from the 1st version issued on 3rd Jan 2018 to 23rd Jan 2018 (version 17). For more details, please refer below url for reference.

https://aws.amazon.com/security/security-bulletins/AWS-2018-013/

Discussion checkpoint

Regarding to my observation. The similar vulnerability found on Aug 2017. I remember that my article posted here mentioned before (see below url for reference). In the meantime, I personally agree with Intel announcement that based on the CPU features to date, many types of computing devices with many different vendors’ processors and operating systems are susceptible to these exploits. And therefore Intel might not the only victim.

The enemy of ASLR (Address space layout randomization) – memory leak

The cache side channel attack of this security incident on Intel side looks compatible to other chips vendor. The worst scenario is that similar channel attack will be happened once you have cache. So, foreseen that this is the prelude of new form of attack in this year!

Hardware vendor patch announcement on 5th Jan 2018

ARM https://developer.arm.com/support/security-update

Intel https://newsroom.intel.com/news/intel-responds-to-security-research-findings/

F5 https://support.f5.com/csp/article/K91229003

WAN acceleration solution vendor

I speculated that WAN acceleration solution vendor and Software defined network will be the next of the victims but now they are keep silent. Perhaps headline news article comment that no know cyber attacks deployed similar definition of theory utilization in past. But I’m in doubt?

As of today short term summary:

The research report evident that the Meltdown vulnerability occurs on Intel processors only, while the Spectre vulnerability can possibly affect some Intel, AMD, and ARM processors. AMD not vulnerable to GPZ Variant 3 since AMD enforced use of privilege level protections within paging architecture. However AMD is not going to take any action in regards to Spectre. Their situation similar comparing to the operating system and computer relationship. The operation itself do not have feature to avoid virus. As a result, it relies on antivirus program. The CPU vendor (AMD) apply the similar idea of concept to this vulnerability and therefore they transfer the responsibility to OS vendor. As a matter of fact, Intel CPU design flaw lack of permission check. It allows a rogue process to read all memory, even when it is not authorized to do so. Spectre, an attacker may be able to extract information about the private data using a timing attack.

Since the flaw given from CPU design. The alternative taken today is urge OS and application vendor setup the protect front-line to avoid Java, C++ execute the malicious code causes leak passwords and sensitive data. The situation similar the HIV virus attacks a specific type of immune system cell in the body, known as CD4 helper lymphocyte cells. HIV destroys these cells, making it harder for your body to fight off virus. Meltdown and Spectre given from CPU fundamental design flaw. If we are only relies on OS and application remediation. Threat actors still have opportunities jump to CPU side satisfy their wants.

End of topic, thank you.