Preface: If you have set “Read& Execute“ permission to everyone on parent folder, and not disable inheritance permission on the subfolder, in theory, subfolder permission should inherit the parent folder permission.
Background: VMware Aria Operations is a unified, AI-powered self-driving IT operations management platform for private, hybrid & multi-cloud environments. You can execute scripts from the local OS using Orchestrator. To do that, Orchestrator needs access (x) to the folder where the script is located and the Orchestrator user needs to be able to read and execute (rx) it. You also need to allow Orchestrator to execute local files. The access for Orchestrator is regulated by the entries in the js-io-rights[.]conf file. Please note that the script needs to be in a file location that Orchestrator can access and that Orchestrator will run as user vco with the group vco. Orchestrator has full access preconfigured for the /var/run/vco directory. The operator means that Orchestrator has the right to access the directory, for example, to list the content or to execute a file.
Vulnerability details: VMware Aria Operations contains a privilege escalation vulnerability. An authenticated malicious user with ReadOnly privileges can perform code execution leading to privilege escalation.
Preface: Enabling HugePages makes it possible for the operating system to support memory pages greater than the default (usually 4 KB). Using very large page sizes can improve system performance by reducing the amount of system resources required to access page table entries.
Background: For Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, it is recommend configure HugeTLB pages to guarantee that JBoss EAP processes will have access to large pages. Reminder: Activating large pages for JBoss EAP JVMs results in pages that are locked in memory and cannot be swapped to disk like regular memory.
Ref: Hugetlb boot command line parameter semantics hugepagesz. Specify a huge page size. Used in conjunction with hugepages parameter to preallocate a number of huge pages of the specified size. Hence, hugepagesz and hugepages are typically specified in pairs such as: hugepagesz=2M hugepages=512.
Design weakness: The special hugetlb routine called at fork took care of structure updates at fork time. However, vma_splitting is not properly handled for ipc shared memory mappings backed by hugetlb pages. This can result in a “kernel NULL pointer dereference” BUG or use after free as two vmas point to the same lock structure.
Solution: Update the shm open and close routines to always call the underlying open and close routines. For Redhat Linux, do the kernel update from 6.1.18-100.fc36 to 6.2.7-1000.fc36.
Technical reference: A subroutine IOBUFSET is provided to craved up an arbitrarily sized storage area into perforated buffer blocks with space for 132 data bytes. The beginning and ending addresses of the buffer storage area are specified to IOBUFSET in age A- and B-registers, respectively.
Preface: Blue screen of death (BSOD) is error display on Windows commonly. In Linux, it is unlikely and uncommon, but is it possible?
Background: As the only copyright holder to the GPL-covered components of the software, you are free to add exceptions and additional terms to the GPLv3, as described in section 7 of that license. In fact, the LGPLv3 is just such a GPLv3 section 7 additional permission, allowing the component to be linked to proprietary code. But it is not recommended. Because it is extreme tricky.
The kernel marks itself as “tainted” when some event occurs that may be relevant when investigating the problem. Found that Kernel 6.1.16 was apparently subject to “oops”. What is “oops”? See below: The tainted status is printed when a kernel internal problem (“kernel bug”), recoverable error (“kernel oops”), or unrecoverable error (“kernel panic”) occurs, and debug information about this is written to the log dmesg output. The tainted status can also be checked at runtime via files in /proc/.
Solution: Maybe it has nothing to do with serious cyberattacks. But it is recommended to upgrade the kernel . 6.2.5 and 6.1.18 has been updated
Preface: Preface: Advantages of NVDIMMs in servers. NVDIMMs provide high-speed DRAM performance coupled with flash-backed persistent storage. Aside from providing an additional memory tier in servers, NVDIMM persistence allows applications to continue processing I/O traffic during planned or unexpected system failures.
Background: Persistent Memory (PM) is a type of Non-Volatile Memory (NVM). The ndctl utility is used to manage the libnvdimm (non-volatile memory device) sub-system in the Linux Kernel. It is required for several Persistent Memory Developer Kit (PMDK) features if compiling from source. If ndctl is not available, the PMDK may not build all components and features. Utility library for managing the libnvdimm (non-volatile memory device) sub-system in the Linux kernel If you going to Writing Applications for Persistent Memory. Below details is the Programming Model Modes:
Block and File modes use IO
Data is read or written using RAM buffers
Software controls how to wait (context switch or poll)
Status is explicitly checked by software
Volume and PM modes enable Load/Store
Data is loaded into or stored from processor registers
Processor makes software wait for data during instruction
No status checking – errors generate exceptions
Recommendation: Suggest upgrade to ndctl: release v76.1 Version 76.1 Fixed the following: cxl/event-trace: use the wrapped util_json_new_u64() cxl/monitor: fix include paths for tracefs and traceevent cxl/monitor: Make libtracefs dependency optional
Preface: Online banking cannot lack of load balancing solution today. However in terms of life cycle of operation system and software libaries , Java language development platform and on-demand custom fuctions. Does it bother the load balancing functions? The most challenging parts is the layer 7 load balancing. Perhaps you can do the healt check on appliation functions. However, it is difficult to garantee the non stop function on application side (availability).
Background: The load-balancing algorithms supported are round-robin, weighted least request, random, ring-hash and more. An additional function includes client non interrupt services using application & service availability (health-checks performance).
My focus: Online banking platform (Hong Kong) Error 500: java.lang.RuntimeException: no EntityContext found in existing session Date: Around 8:15 am 5/3/2022
Fundamentally, Web server load balancing function in correct way make no downtime. Therefore when you connected to web server had problem. The load balancing function will keep persistence (SSL Sticky) then redirect your connection to the web server which is available. My experience operating in online banking system in today morning (3rd May, 2022) hints the technical information to me. I encountered error my web services. (Reminded – it successful logged on and doing operations). However an error 500 display on my screen. Thereafter. even I close the browser, make new established connection to Banking system. It still redirect my new connection to e-banking1.hangseng.com. But in round robin setup architecture, I can connect to e-banking2.hangseng.com by chance.
Observation: Perhaps, load balancer capable web application health check function. But for online banking system, it do a health check on web server front page. On java server page. For example: The EntityContext interface contains the getEjbObject and getPrimaryKey methods that a bean can use to find out about the object it is associated with. The client communicates with the bean via the EJBObject. If one of the java service had error occur. May be the load balancer health check function not know what’s happening.
Whether there is concerns on vulnerable Java SE Embedded versions. So, apply tight protection and causes this technical problem occurs. Or there is an software configuration problem in web application itself?
Preface:SpaceX was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonization of Mars.
Background: Exploring Mars helps scientists understand major changes in climate that can fundamentally change the planet. It also allows us to look for biological features that might reveal whether there was abundant life on Mars in the past?
Common programming weaknesses: Many memory manipulation functions in C and C++ do not perform bounds checking and can easily overwrite the allocated bounds of the buffers they operate upon.
Mistaken assumptions about the size
By design, forming a piece of data is the root cause of most buffer overflows.
Ref: In a classic buffer overflow exploit, the attacker sends data to a program, which it stores in an undersized stack buffer. The result is that information on the call stack is overwritten, including the function’s return pointer. The data sets the value of the return pointer so that when the function returns, it transfers control to malicious code contained in the attacker’s data.
Reality factor: There are many additional programming functions make the situation complex that a programmer cannot accurately predict its behavior.
My view point: Human beings want to explore the universe to meet their needs, and find a way to develop our living space free from the limitations of the earth. In fact, the speed of the rocket is the limit. If you think about it, it will take nine months to reach Mars. But we know that Mars is not suitable for human habitation. Why don’t we take time to improve the air pollution on the planet. In addition, if we can adjust the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, our new life is coming.
Preface: In Japanese mythology, the Namazu (鯰) or Ōnamazu (大鯰) is a giant underground catfish who causes earthquakes. This giant not caused disaster, he is the fastest supercomputer in the world. His name is FUGAKU.
Background: Riken and Fujitsu started developing the system in 2014, working closely with ARM to design the A64FX processor. Each of these ships has 48 CPU cores based on the ARM architecture version 8.2A, making it the first such chip in the world. Furthermore, more than 94.2% of supercomputers are based on Linux. In addition, supercomputers can run Windows operating systems.
Do you think today’s supercomputers only rely on a few sets of multi-core processors and standalone operating systems?
When using two virtual machines, VMware found that the overall benchmark results using an 8 TB data set were almost as fast as native hardware, while when using 4 virtual machines, the virtualization method was actually 2% faster. If the system architecture is constructed by many virtual machines. In order to achieve parallel computing to improve efficiency. The supercomputer also apply similar concept.
Base on design goals. HPC workload manager focuses on running distributed memory jobs and supporting high throughput scenarios, and Kubernetes is mainly used to orchestrate containerized microservice applications. If the system architecture is constructed by many virtual machines. Realize parallel computing to improve efficiency. So when the above concepts are implemented on a supercomputer, the processing power will be improved.
The fastest supercomputer this month is FUGAKU. But who can guarantee that FUGAKU will always be number one?
Preface: Starting with Oracle 11g release 1 (11.1), there is a just-in-time (JIT) compiler for Oracle JVM environment. A JIT compiler for Oracle JVM enables much faster execution because, it manages the invalidation, recompilation, and storage of code without an external mechanism.
Background: A way to prevent attack code execution by stack and heap. It marking stack and heap as non-executable. However some apps need executable heap (For instance JIT compiler), so it does not defend against `Return Oriented Programming’ exploits.
What is ROP exploit technique:Return–oriented programming (ROP) is a computer security exploit technique that allows an attacker to execute code in the presence of security defenses such as executable space protection and code signing.
Preface: Sysadmin may unintentionally expose a Docker registry service without enforcing proper access control, said Palo Alto Networks.
Background: Easy to deploy, one of the goal of container-based technology. Docker storing image in a managed collection, with standardized methods of identifying, committing, and pulling individual images. With this feature it is equivalent as a image Repositories. It makes Docker so useful is how easy it is to pull ready-to-use images from a Docker’s Central Registry. Meanwhile you can’t share your repository with other because it contains proprietary code or confidential information.
Technical details: Docker-Registry is a simple Python app. Your Registry can develop as a Private Registries. Besides, in some environments, sysadmin can setup the Registry SRV on port 443 and make it accessible on internet (Registry-dot-com). Such services are popular on AWS S3 or Azure.
Key areas of concern: Compromised Containers, mis-configuration & access control.
Preface: Flaws that require root access are not considered security issues in existing policy. If we are not using cloud computing concept. It is acceptable. But we need cloud system!
Security focus: Turkish information security specialist found a design weakness in Windows kernel design. According to the vendor’s Bug Bounty program rules, flaws that require root access are not considered security issues and are not classified as vulnerabilities. However our the whole IT world in the trend of cloud technology. It is hard to guarantee similar type of vulnerability will be impact the public cloud farm. Perhaps it might have possibility to do a re-engineering become as a Surveillance tool.
Defect details: An PoC tool proof that it can hijacks the HalPrivateDispatchTable table to create a early-bugcheck hook. Utilizing this early-bugcheck hook it collects information about the exception and basically provides a simple interface to register a high-level system-wide exception handler. My intention is going to urge Microsoft should be consider this technical issue. Perhaps it may become a zero-day. So I do not display related url.Should you have interested of this topic, not difficult to do a search. You will find the details.
The ntoskrnl.exe kernel service, which is responsible for handling exceptions, system call procedures, and thread scheduling in Windows.
Kernel Patch Protection (KPP), informally known as PatchGuard, is a feature of 64-bit (x64) editions of Microsoft Windows that prevents patching the kernel.
Fundamental design concept – related to this matter:
RSPx is loaded in whenever an interrupt causes the CPU to change PL to x. The TSS in long mode also holds the Interrupt Stack Table, which is a table of 7 known good stack pointers that can be used for handling interrupts.
BKPT #0x3 ; Breakpoint with immediate value set to 0x3 (debugger can ; extract the immediate value by locating it using the PC- (program counter))
x86_64 also has a feature which is not available on i386, the ability to automatically switch to a new stack for designated events such as double fault or NMI, which makes it easier to handle these unusual events on x86_64. This feature is called the Interrupt Stack Table (IST). There can be up to 7 IST entries per CPU. The IST code is an index into the Task State Segment (TSS). The IST entries in the TSS point to dedicated stacks; each stack can be a different size.