CVE‑2024‑0082 – Design weakness of NVIDIA ChatRTX for Windows (26-03-2024)

Preface: Unlike OpenAI’s ChatGPT, Chat with RTX doesn’t remember the context of prompts. Asking Chat with RTX to give examples of fishes in one prompt and then asking for a description of “the fishes” in the next prompt will result in a blank – users will need to spell out everything explicitly.

Background: Chat with RTX defaults to AI startup Mistral’s open-source model but supports other text-based models, including Meta’s Llama 2, which is also open-source.

Chat with RTX is a demo app that lets you personalize a GPT large language model (LLM) connected to your own content—docs, notes, videos, or other data. Leveraging retrieval-augmented generation (RAG), TensorRT-LLM, and RTX acceleration, you can query a custom chatbot to quickly get contextually relevant answers. And because it all runs locally on your Windows RTX PC or workstation.

Vulnerability details: NVIDIA ChatRTX for Windows contains a vulnerability in the UI, where an attacker can cause improper privilege management by sending open file requests to the application. A successful exploit of this vulnerability might lead to local escalation of privileges, information disclosure, and data tampering.

Official announcement: Please refer to the link for details –

CVE-2024-2885: Use after free in Dawn in Google Chrome (26th Mar 2024)

Preface: WebGPU is a JavaScript API provided by a web browser that enables webpage scripts to efficiently utilize a device’s graphics processing unit (GPU). Google has enabled WebGPU support by default in Chrome 121, the latest version of its Chrome browser.

Background: WebGPU sees physical GPU hardware as GPUAdapters. It provides a connection to an adapter via GPUDevice, which manages resources, and the device’s GPUQueues, which execute commands.

Vulnerability details: Use after free in Dawn in Google Chrome prior to 123[.]0[.]6312[.]86 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. (Chromium security severity: High)

Official announcement: Please refer to the link for details –

To be new or it was former: Rowhammer Attacks on AMD Zen-Based Platforms. So called ZenHammer (25-03-2024)

Preface: It is possible to trigger Rowhammer bit flips on DDR4 devices on AMD Zen 2 and Zen 3 systems despite deployed TRR mitigations, said researchers at ETH Zurich.

Background: When high-energy charged particles pass through the crystal lattice of a silicon wafer, their charges can interfere with the electrons within the lattice itself and provide energy. If the lattice is moved closer together within the wafer, this disturbed electron trajectory can create a temporary highly conductive path that did not exist before. The effect of this trace is similar to running a very thin wire across the wafer in random directions. If the particle’s path crosses a feature within the die, such as a floating MOSFET gate or an NMOS DRAM cell, the result may be a flipped bit.

Vulnerability details: On February 26, 2024, AMD received new research related to an industry-wide DRAM issue documented in “ZENHAMMER: Rowhammering Attacks on AMD Zen-based Platforms” from researchers at ETH Zurich. The research demonstrates performing Rowhammer attacks on DDR4 and DDR5 memory using AMD “Zen” platforms. Given the history around Rowhammer, the researchers do not consider these rowhammering attacks to be a new issue.

Mitigation: Please see the following official announcement for details –

CVE-2024-29059  – [.]NET Framework Information Disclosure Vulnerability (24th Mar 2024)

Preface: Microsoft did not tell the details of the vulnerability! What happened to the .NET Framework? Can we guess what happened?

[.]NET is a platform framework. Currently, there are two types: the [.]NET Framework exclusive to the Windows platform and the cross-platform .NET Core.

Background: The [.]NET Framework works with applications developed in C#, F#, or Visual Basic and compiled to Common Intermediate Language (CIL). The Common Language Runtime (CLR) runs [.]NET applications on a given machine, converting the CIL to machine code.

The Common Language Runtime (CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft .NET Framework, manages the execution of .NET programs

Vulnerability details: [.]NET Framework Information Disclosure Vulnerability

Official announcement: Please see the link below for details –

If you are interested in my speculation, please see the attached picture.

What are the security updates for 17.4.1? Apple, as always, won’t tell you the details of the vulnerability! (22-03-2024)

Preface: iPhone XS is powered by the A12 Bionic processor. iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 Mini use the Apple-designed A15 Bionic chip system. Additionally, the iPhone 15 is powered by a six-core Apple A16 Bionic processor. All above Bionic processors have common point. They are 64-bit ARM-based system on a chip (SoC) designed by Apple Inc.

Speculation: If you remember, a vulnerability related to AMD on 15th Mar, 2024.(CVE-2024-21930) Specter v1 variant inheriting the Specter v1 vulnerability. So called GhostRace. But this design weakness not only to AMD. For example, ARM Limited do not announce they do not impact with this vulnerability. So, do you think, Apple Inc. might worries about this vulnerability thus in priority to update Firmware and Linux base OS to mitigate this risk?

Official announcement: Please refer to the link for details  –

CPU hardware utilizing speculative execution may be vulnerable to speculative race conditions

CVE-2024-22019: About Node.js HTTP module(21st Mar 2024)

Preface: Express framework is built on top of the Node.js HTTP module and provides us, with a clean way to write the backend.

Background: The HTTP module extends two built-in classes:

Net module: Provides network API for creating stream-based TCP servers or clients.

Events module: Provides an event-driven architecture using EventEmitter class.

Ref: Chunked transfer encoding is a streaming data transfer mechanism available in Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) version 1.1, defined in RFC 9112#section-7.1. In chunked transfer encoding, the data stream is divided into a series of non-overlapping “chunks”. The chunks are sent out and received independently of one another.

Each chunk is preceded by its size in bytes. The transmission ends when a zero-length chunk is received. The chunked keyword in the Transfer-Encoding header is used to indicate chunked transfer.

Vulnerability details: A vulnerability in Node.js HTTP servers allows an attacker to send a specially crafted HTTP request with chunked encoding, leading to resource exhaustion and denial of service (DoS). The server reads an unbounded number of bytes from a single connection, exploiting the lack of limitations on chunk extension bytes. The issue can cause CPU and network bandwidth exhaustion, bypassing standard safeguards like timeouts and body size limits.

Official announcement: Please see the link below for details:

CVE-2024-2612: Self referencing object could have potentially led to a use-after-free (20-03-2024)

Preface: If you want the best internet browser that puts security first, not data collection, then Firefox is your best bet.

Background: Smart pointers are C++ objects that not only store a pointer to a dynamically allocated resource but also manage the lifetime cycle of that resource, ensuring it is properly deallocated when no longer needed or when it is out of scope. It helps prevent memory leaks.

The Firefox browser is a collection of C++ libraries designed to be assembled into any number of applications that you can run on machines with any of the major desktop operating systems (Windows, OS X, Linux, etc.).

Vulnerability details: If an attacker could find a way to trigger a particular code path in `SafeRefPtr`, it could have triggered a crash or potentially be leveraged to achieve code execution. This vulnerability affects Firefox < 124, Firefox ESR < 115.9, and Thunderbird < 115.9.

Official announcement: Please see the link below for details.

CVE-2024-21661: Argo CD suffers denial of service (DoS) vulnerability (18-03-2024)

Preface: What does multi threaded environment mean? Multithreading is the ability of a program or an operating system to enable more than one user at a time without requiring multiple copies of the program running on the computer.

Background: Argo CD is implemented as a Kubernetes controller which continuously monitors running applications and compares the current, live state against the desired target state (as specified in the Git repo). Hooks are simply Kubernetes manifests tracked in the source repository of your Argo CD Application. Synchronization can be configured using resource hooks. Hooks are ways to run scripts before, during, and after a Sync operation. Hooks can also be run if a Sync operation fails at any point. For example:

Using a Sync hook to orchestrate a complex deployment requiring more sophistication than the Kubernetes rolling update strategy.

Vulnerability details: An attacker can exploit a critical flaw in the application to initiate a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, rendering the application inoperable and affecting all users. The issue arises from unsafe manipulation of an array in a multi-threaded environment.

Official announcement: Please see the link below for details –

CVE-2024-28862: The Ruby One Time Password library (ROTP) Affected versions had overly permissive default permissions (18-03-2024)

Preface: In this rushed, demanding digital world, people don’t think about what the back-end platform or its design is. Therefore, vulnerability management actually relies on vendors and software developers.

Background: Ruby on Rails is forming a niche as it is used by millions of websites, which includes well-known companies like Github, Shopify, Airbnb, Fiverr and more.

ROTP is a gem used to generate and verify TOTP (Time-Based One Time Password), rqrcode gem generates QR code SVG based on the generated TOTP.

Vulnerability details: The Ruby One Time Password library (ROTP) is an open source library for generating and validating one time passwords. Affected versions had overly permissive default permissions (CWE-276 – Incorrect Default Permissions).

When file has 666 permissions, which grants read and write permission to everyone. This CVE hits this matter.

Workaround: Users should patch to version 6.3.0. Users unable to patch may correct file permissions after installation.

Official announcement: Please refer to the link below for details –

CVE-2024-2193: Specter v1 variant inheriting the Specter v1 vulnerability. So called GhostRace. AMD believes the previous guidance remains applicable to mitigate this vulnerability (15-03-2024)

AMD made this announcement on March 12, 2024.

Preface: Spectre variant 1 attacks take advantage of speculative execution of conditional branches, while Spectre variant 2 attacks use speculative execution of indirect branches to leak privileged memory.

Background: Speculative execution improves speed by operating on multiple instructions at once—possibly in a different order than when they entered the CPU. Speculative execution includes instruction or data pre-fetch, branch prediction, or any operation performed speculatively based on the prediction of program/system behavior.

Vulnerability details: A Speculative Race Condition (SRC) vulnerability that impacts modern CPU architectures supporting speculative execution has been discovered. CPU hardware utilizing speculative execution that are vulnerable to Spectre v1 are likely affected. An unauthenticated attacker can exploit this vulnerability to disclose arbitrary data from the CPU using race conditions to access the speculative executable code paths. Security researchers have labeled this variant of the Spectre v1 vulnerability “GhostRace”, for ease of communication.

Official announcement: Please refer to the following link for details –

CPU hardware utilizing speculative execution may be vulnerable to speculative race conditions

AMD official article