Preface:AVEVA has reached agreement to acquire OSIsoft, a pioneer and global leader in real-time industrial operational data software and services.
Background: Under normal circumstance, authorized user can navigate to the ASMX file through your browser. So, you can fill in the form with the parameters and post to the DB. If attacker finds the URL of this internet facing web portal, is there a way let hacker alter the database.
Reply: If someone else is in the same domain then he can copy the cookie in the referring page then exploit ASMX file to alter the DB.
CVE-2020-13508 – Parameter AliasName in Alias.asmx is vulnerable to unauthenticated SQL injection attacks. CVE-2020-13505 – Parameter psClass in ednareporting.asmx is vulnerable to unauthenticated SQL injection attacks. CVE-2020-13503 – Parameter AttFilterName in ednareporting.asmx is vulnerable to unauthenticated SQL injection attacks. CVE-2020-13501 – Parameter InstanceName in CHaD.asmx is vulnerable to unauthenticated SQL injection attacks. CVE-2020-13500 – Parameter ClassName in CHaD.asmx is vulnerable to unauthenticated SQL injection attacks. CVE-2020-13499 – Parameter InstancePath in CHaD.asmx is vulnerable to unauthenticated SQL injection attacks. CVE-2020-13507 – Parameter OrigID in Alias.asmx is vulnerable to unauthenticated SQL injection attacks
Remark: Specially crafted SOAP web requests can cause SQL injections resulting in data compromise on above items.
Preface: From logical point of view, if input only relies on a standalone source (sensor). The integrity of the result all relies on the total amount of variable factors. Perhaps sensor install on airplane is a IoT device. So it lure my interest.
Background: Traditionally the older (NG) 737 variants did not have fly-by-wire technology, and autopilot could be overridden and turned off simply by putting manual pressure on the yoke.
Software that talks to computer like airplanes equipment is often written in a programming language called C. The names of files written in C code usually have .c at the end. This assumes that the MCAS software is contained a file called mcas.c. But this time there was no cyber attack. This is a problem caused by human error.
Cause of incident: In the case of the Lion Air crash, the sensor malfunctioned and caused the flight computer to push the nose down when the flight was level.
From technical point of view, the sensor is IoT device. There are facilities can avoid such disaster happen. Conceptually, even a simple xor gate with two input. Or the combination of NAND gates equivalent a XOR gate setup. The essential of objectives is the suitable logic apply to the Logic Circuit. Whereby, the output is dependant at all times on the combination of its inputs. It simple to say it is the logic design.
Vulnerability: A vulnerability classified as critical has been found in JerryScript 2.2.0. This affects an unknown function of the file vm/opcodes.c. The manipulation with an unknown input leads to a privilege escalation vulnerability.
Remedy: On GitHub, Developer shown that it fixed. But there is no official announcement yet.
Preface: It is common for application developers to use open source as a reference.
Synopsis: If you are consider or has been used the free source code to develop the seat-reservation-system. You should stay alert for vulnerabilities in this software product.
Seat Reservation System 1.0 Unauthenticated SQL Injection (CVE-2020-25762) Seat Reservation System version 1.0 suffers from an unauthenticated file upload vulnerability that allows for remote code execution. (CVE-2020-25763)
Remedy: You can do a config on your firewall or Nginx to restrict the access of ajax.php and admin function pages.
Preface: The APT organization provides a hard-to-detect malware to attack other hostile campus.
Synopsis: The evasion technique found recently by security expert team is that APT 29 exploit the design weakness of detection machanism. They do a re-engineering to covert a zip file to JPEG. “This technique works because JPEG files are parsed from the beginning of the file and some Zip implementations parse Zip files from the end of the file (since the index is located there) without looking at the signature in the front,” the researchers explain.
Perhaps APT 28 and 29 using different evasion technique aim to delivery the malicious resources to landing. Whereby, the final executor is the power shell.
So called Zebrocy. Its function is mainly Downloader. The evasion effect is better than the technique use by APT 29. After running, it will perform a persistence operation and pop up an error message box to confuse the user. When it is started with specific parameters, a screenshot will be taken. Through the timer callback function, send data to the remote server and wait for the subsequent payload to be downloaded.
Should you disable PowerShell? No, minimize the risks with PowerShell Constrained Language mode.
Enabling Constrained Language mode ^ PS C:\Users\xxxx> $ExecutionContext.SessionState.LanguageMode = “ConstrainedLanguage”
This could be configured in registry HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\SESSION MANAGER\Environment__PSLockdownPolicy .
Running PS as Admin you can simple remove this property Remove-ItemProperty -path “HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment\” -name __PSLockdownPolicy
Recommended article: PSLockDownPolicy and PowerShell Constrained Language Mode – https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/archive/blogs/kfalde/pslockdownpolicy-and-powershell-constrained-language-mode
Preface: CFB8 was created to have good error propagation properties over a noisy channel. It is well known that it is not fast; it is actually 16 times as slow, as it requires a block encrypt for each byte.
Details: CVE-2020-1472, also known as “Zerologon,” was given a “critical” security rating from Microsoft. It has possibility let attacker gain fully control all identity services in the AD domain. As a result, any device under the domain will run malicious programs. But this headache will be expand to other 3rd party solution provider. The US government issued an emergency order requiring the Zerologon patch to be completed by next week.
My observation: If you have windows policy applied – accounts locked after invalid login attempts for 3 times. Perhaps it will avoid this attack.
Remediation on Samba server: In samba server config (smb.conf) modify ‘server schannel = yes
Preface: Companies large and small are using Rust in production all over the world, including Mozilla, Dropbox, npm, Postmates, Braintree and others.
Vulnerability details: An issue was discovered in the sized-chucks crate through 0.6.2 for Rust CVE-2020-25791…CVE-2020-25796. Chunk: – Array size is not checked when constructed with unit() and pair() – Array size is not checked when constructed with From<InlineArray<A, T>>. – Clone and insert_from are not panic-safe (memory safety issues) InlineArray: – Generates unaligned references for types with a large alignment requirement.
Rust does not implement Default for all arrays because it does not have non-type polymorphism. Rust does not implement Default for all arrays because it does not have non-type polymorphism. If the design do not contain check array mechanism fo constructing structures (“structs”) by specify type. Perhaps there is no proof of concept to exploit this vulnerability in the moment. However it looks that it provides a way for attacker exploit this design limitation in future. In the moment, it require to waiting for the developer do the remediation.
Preface: The popularity of NFC mobile payments is owed to its ease of use and improved security options. Near-field communication (NFC) enables smartphones to exchange data and function as a payment device. It stores the customer’s credit card details and allows the user to pay at NFC POS terminals through smartphones.
Vulnerability details: In NFC, there is a possible permission bypass due to an unsafe “PendingIntent”. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with User execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.
By giving a “PendingIntent” to another application, you are granting it the right to perform the operation you have specified as if the other application was yourself (with the same permissions and identity). As such, you should be careful about how you build the “PendingIntent”: almost always, for example, the base Intent you supply should have the component name explicitly set to one of your own components, to ensure it is ultimately sent there and nowhere else.
Reference: A PendingIntent is a token that you give to a foreign application (e.g. NotificationManager, AlarmManager, Home Screen AppWidgetManager, or other 3rd party applications), which allows the foreign application to use your application’s permissions to execute a predefined piece of code.
Preface: The firewall does not display the Captive Portal web form to users until you Configure Authentication Policy rules that trigger authentication when users request services or applications.
Vulnerability details: A buffer overflow vulnerability in PAN-OS allows an unauthenticated attacker to disrupt system processes and potentially execute arbitrary code with root privileges by sending a malicious request to the Captive Portal or Multi-Factor Authentication interface.
When a program (or subroutine) executes, it has a certain area of memory set aside called a stack (used for storing dynamically allocated variables). The stack also stores a return address to the program that invoked it. This allows a return to the code that was executing before the subroutine was called.
The goal of a buffer overflow attack is to overwrite the area of the stack where the return address is stored. The overwritten data will contain a new memory address pointing to the code that give a way for attacker to execute arbitrary code with privileges.
Security Focus: By sending a number of Netlogon messages in which various fields are filled with zeroes, an attacker can change the computer password of the domain controller that is stored in the AD (refer to Index 1). This can then be used to obtain domain admin credentials and then restore the original DC password.
Index 1: 0 xor 0 = 0 agian, all subsequent blocks fed to AES will be all-zero. And therefore 00 will keep being xorred to the next plaintext bytes.
Important notice by US Homeland Security: The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) is aware of publicly available exploit code for CVE-2020-1472, an elevation of privilege vulnerability in Microsoft’s Netlogon. Although Microsoft provided patches for CVE-2020-1472 in August 2020, unpatched systems will be an attractive target for malicious actors. Attackers could exploit this vulnerability to obtain domain administrator access.