Category Archives: IoT

Discarded Tesla car parts contain information. Maybe you can buy it on eBay. Who can believe in the technological world? Even if no such incident occurs, the supplier can read your local data without your consent (8th May 2020)

Preface: The traditional method of disposing of hard drives is degaussing or incineration.

Headline News: The manufacturer has a hardware disposal policy. The incidents encountered by Tesla may be due to improper handling of third parties. For more information about headline news, please refer to this link. https://www.hackread.com/user-data-found-in-tesla-car-parts-ebay/

Supplement: Should you have doubt about your data personal privacy matter in IoT device? You might have interested to read the following.

Who can you trust in the Internet world? Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL in MySQL DB.

Technical overview:
Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL on MySQL DB server side:
Such a server could access any file on the client host to which the client user has read access. Please refer to this link to read the details – http://www.antihackingonline.com/application-development/who-can-you-trust-in-the-internet-world-security-issues-with-load-data-local-in-mysql-db/

Official announcement – Security Considerations for LOAD DATA LOCAL. Please refer to this URL: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/load-data-local-security.html

Storm of Go language based malware – 6th May 2020

Preface: New Kaiji malware targets IoT devices via SSH brute-force.

Background: Gobot is a framework for robotics, drones, and the Internet of Things (IoT), written in the Go programming language.

Observation: Programmers usually choose Golang for building the communication layer within the IoT system. One of the biggest draws to Go is the fact that a single codebase may be compiled for all of the major operating system platforms.

What is codbase: A codebase is a source code repository or a set of repositories that share a common root. The single codebase for an application is used to produce any number of immutable releases that are destined for different environments.

Facts: So it benefits to attacker when he written a malware.

Prediction in regards to current situation: See attached diagram. My prediction is that hacker will be exploit the design weakness in Go language (Go programs primarily use the YMM registers to implement copying one memory buffer to another). So, the case is under observation.

The things you can do right now: Implement effective passwords on all IoT devices when possible.

Headline News:https://www.zdnet.com/article/new-kaiji-malware-targets-iot-devices-via-ssh-brute-force-attacks/

CVE-2019-12941 – AutoPi ( Wi-Fi/NB and 4G/LTE) devices wifi password vulnerability (Oct 2019)

Preface: Are you afraid of someone suddenly controlling your car?

Background: AutoPi is a small device that plugs into the OBD-II port of your car.

What is OBD-II port? OBD-II port of the car which gives the dongle access to the cars internal systems. AutoPi also provides a cloud service that lets you communicate with the dongle remotely over the Internet.

Vulnerability details: When user connected to the WiFi, it is also possible to SSH into the device. Both the web portal terminal and the SSH terminal grants root access, meaning that full access of the devices is given when connected through WiFi.

Since the wifi password mechanism design weakness. Attacker can use following method to receive the WPA2 authentication password. The default WiFi password and WiFi SSID are derived from the same hash function output (input is only 8 characters), which allows an attacker to deduce the WiFi password from the WiFi SSID. So it only take few hours can be cracked. For more details, please refer to attached infographic for reference.

Should you have interested, please download the technical white paper to review. https://www.kth.se/polopoly_fs/1.931922.1571071632!/Burdzovic_Matsson_dongle_v2.pdf

New generation of weapon iot+lora+Drone (2019)

Preface: Traditionally, only big country can have military weapon. Computer technology especially IoT devices not only replace human power. As we seen, IoT 4.0 is going to replace routine man power resources. Perhaps IoT technology also infiltrate in military arsenal .

Details: On Sep, 2019. Drone attacks have set alight two major oil facilities run by the state-owned company Aramco in Saudi Arabia. Refer to diagram, Drone integrate with Lora can increasing the control effective distance. If trouble maker is going to attack improtant facilties, they have more choices today. In last decade, APT cyber attack is the major channel to detroy the critical facilities. But APT attack rare to destroy the infrastructure. If enemy insists to destory the infrastructure. The setup of IoT, Lora and Drone can do it.

Can Drones be Detected by Radar? All newer radars are equipped and have the ability to locate even the smallest drones in the air. May be in future, all the critical facilities especially oil facilitiy, Power grid require to install Radar system.

Prediction: We heard APT cyber attack against critical facilities (especially power grid and oil facilities) by far. It looks that a hybrid attack (IoT+Lora+Drone) will be use in future.

CVE-2019-10099 Apache Spark Unencrypted Data Vulnerability Aug 2019

Background: Apache Spark is the tailor made for big data industry.Spark’s advanced acyclic processing engine can operating as a stand-alone mode or a cloud service.

Synopsis: Spark supports encrypting temporary data written to local disks. This covers shuffle files, shuffle spills and data blocks stored on disk (for both caching and broadcast variables). It does not cover encrypting output data generated by applications with APIs such as saveAsHadoopFile or saveAsTable. It also may not cover temporary files created explicitly by the user.

Vulnerability details: The vulnerability is due to a cryptographic issue in the affected software that allows user data to be written to the local disk unencrypted in certain situations, even if the spark.io.encryption.enabled property is set to true.

Security focus: This vulnerability did not category as critical. But the level of risk will be depends on the system architecture and classification level of data. For instance, it is a machine learning function and install on top of public cloud computer farm. If this is the case, a serious access restriction control to Spark infrastructure area must be apply.

Remedy: Apache has released software updates at the following link – https://spark.apache.org/downloads.html

CVE-2019-11042 PHP flaw form a way to read past the allocated buffer. This may lead to information disclosure or crash. Aug 2019

Preface: We knew Python programming language has large footprint in IoT world. Have you heard PHPoC (PHP on Chip) – a programming language and an IoT hardware platform? So, PHP programming language still have survival space.

Background: The EXIF headers tend to be present in JPEG/TIFF images generated by digital cameras. In order to read meta data generated by digital cameras , software application simply using the standard exif_read_data() function.

Vulnerability details: When PHP EXIF extension is parsing EXIF information from an image (e.g. via exif_read_data() function).
Such defect possible to supply it with data what will cause it to read past the allocated buffer and causes data leak.

Affected version: in PHP versions 7.1.x below 7.1.31, 7.2.x below 7.2.21 and 7.3.x below 7.3.8

How smart of the smartcity, depends on your vulnerability management (CVE-2019-14462 & CVE-2019-14463) Aug 2019

Preface: Why should we driven Artificial Intelligence like a maniac? We are mankind!

MODBUS techincal background: Modbus is a communication protocol developed by Modicon systems. In simple terms, it is a method used for transmitting information over serial lines between electronic devices. The device requesting the information is called the Modbus Master and the devices supplying information are Modbus Slaves.

Possible way – A string is properly null-terminated if a null terminator is present at or before the last element in the array. If a string lacks the terminating null character, the program may be tricked into reading or writing data outside the bounds of the array. A successful exploit could trigger an out-of-bounds read condition that the attacker could use to execute arbitrary code or cause a DoS condition.

Remedy – Official release updated to include important fixes: https://libmodbus.org/2019/stable-and-development-releases/

Das U-Boot Self-Referential DOS Partition Table Infinite Recursion Vulnerability Aug 2019

Vulnerability details: A crafted self-referential DOS partition table will cause all Das U-Boot versions through 2019.07-rc4 to infinitely recurse, causing the stack to grow infinitely and eventually either crash or overwrite other data.

Introduction: Das U-Boot a popular primary bootloader, it widely used in embedded devices to fetch data from different sources and run the next stage code.In the technology and computer markets, widely used to this bootloader is Linux Kernel. Meanwhile, it is commonly used by IoT. Kindle and ARM ChromeOS devices.

Remedy: Official remediation solution is disable DOS partition default sector for 512 because it’s not very common at all to use large numbers of partitions. Meanwhile set a maximum recursion level (refer to the parameter shown on attached diagram).

Please note that Das U-Boot has other vulnerabilities found. The CVE details shown as below:
CVE-2019-14192, CVE-2019-14193, CVE-2019-14194, CVE-2019-14195, CVE-2019-14196, CVE-2019-14197, CVE-2019-14198, CVE-2019-14199, CVE-2019-14200, CVE-2019-14201, CVE-2019-14202, CVE-2019-14203 and CVE-2019-14204

Above vulnerabilities could let attacker gain remote code execution at the U-Boot powered device when U-Boot is configured to use the network for fetching the next stage boot resources.

Official announcement on CVW-2019-13103https://lists.denx.de/pipermail/u-boot/2019-July/375512.html

Multiple high vulnerabilities in Advantech WebAccess/SCADA -CVE-2019-10989,CVE-2019-10991 & CVE-2019-10993

Preface: Cyber Security expert not suggest access SCADA Dashboard from external area (internet). But we can use VPN establish connection then sign on as a workaround.

Background: Advantech WebAccess/SCADA is a browser-based SCADA software package for supervisory control, data acquisition and visualization.

Vulnerability details: In WebAccess/SCADA Versions 8.3.5 and prior, multiple heap-based buffer overflow vulnerabilities are caused by a lack of proper validation of the length of user-supplied data.

CVE-2019-10989 – The specific flaw exists within the implementation of the 0x113d1 IOCTL in the webvrpcs process.

CVE-2019-10991 – The specific flaw exists within bwclient.exe, which is accessed through the 0x2711 IOCTL in the webvrpcs process.

CVE-2019-10993 – The specific flaw exists within the implementation of the 0x27E9 IOCTL in the webvrpcs process.

Summary: Stack based & heap based buffer overflow and untrusted pointer dereference Remote Code Execution are all found in this product. Ioctl is a function in the device driver that manages the device’s I/O channels. The so-called I/O channel management is to control some characteristics of the device.

Reference: A stack-based buffer overflow vulnerability exists in a call to strcpy. Strcpy is one of the functions of the C language. It comes from the C standard library, defined in string.h, which can copy a memory block with a null end character into another memory block.
So attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute code under the context of Administrator.

Advantech has issued an update to correct this vulnerability – https://www.us-cert.gov/ics/advisories/icsa-19-178-05

IoT world hiccups – CVE-2019-12951 Mongoose parse mqtt() Function Heap-Based Buffer Overflow Vulnerability – Now fixed – Jun 2019

Preface: Smart City look like a housekeeper. The sensor is his eye.But do you have question? He is a man or she is a woman.

Background: Mongoose is a cross-platform embedded web server and networking library with functions including different protocol (TCP, HTTP, WebSocket, Server MQTT client and broker).

What is MQTT? MQTT is a simple messaging protocol, designed for constrained devices with low-bandwidth. It works on the TCP/IP protocol suite.

Vulnerability details: An issue was discovered in Mongoose before 6.15. The parse_mqtt() function in mg_mqtt.c has a critical heap-based buffer overflow.

Impact: It could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to execute arbitrary code or cause a denial of service (DoS) condition on a targeted system (see attached diagram).

Reference: Example of arbitrary code

strcpy(char *dest, const char *src) – May overflow the dest buffer
strcat(char *dest, const char *src) – May overflow the dest buffer

The vendor has released a bug fix – https://github.com/cesanta/mongoose/commit/b3e0f780c34cea88f057a62213c012aa88fe2deb