CVE-2018-4878 against South Korean Targets. See whether is it true?

In July 2017, Adobe announced that it would end support for Flash Player in 2020, and continued to encourage the use of open HTML5 standards in place of Flash. The announcement was coordinated with Apple, Facebook,Google,Microsoft,and Mozilla. If you would like to know what is the flash vulnerability actual destructive power. Let review the suggestion by Antivirus big brother Kaspersky (Jul 2017). Kaspersky recommends disabling Flash Player, in order to stay protected. Perhaps you may not have interest to read below url. But on-line games and on-line casino still requires Adobe Flash in the moment. We all known South Korea is the leader in the gaming section. And therefore The South Korean Computer Emergency Response Team (KR-CERT) has issued a security alert warning of a zero-day vulnerability affecting Adobe’s Flash Player.

CVE-2018-4878

https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/us/security/news/vulnerabilities-and-exploits/north-korean-hackers-allegedly-exploit-adobe-flash-player-vulnerability-cve-2018-4878-against-south-korean-targets

Be aware of RTMFP protocol

The silent of the Flash, Be aware of RTMFP protocol! He can exacerbate network attacks.

Let keep our eye open , see whether such vulnerability will be occurs this year. If this nightmare come true. A unforeseen destruction of the reputation to the company includes vendor and customer!

Advantech WebAccess/SCADA – CVE-2018-5443 – CVE-2018-5445

Preface:

SCADA systems are the backbone of many modern industries, including: Energy, Food and beverage, Manufacturing, Oil and gas, Power, Recycling, Transportation, Water and waste water,….etc

SCADA evolution:

The first generation of SCADA system relies with mainframe computers. As time goes by, the evolutionary of SCADA build on top of open system foundation (Unix) in 80’s. Perhaps the Microsoft product dominate the computer world. And such away engaged the transformation in 90’s. The SCADA software that utilizes the power of SQL databases provides flexibility and advantages to traditional SCADA system.

One big benefit of using SQL databases with a SCADA system is that it makes it easier to integrate into existing MES and ERP systems, allowing data to flow seamlessly through an entire organization.

  • (MES) – Manufacturing execution systems are computerized systems used in manufacturing, to track and document the transformation of raw materials to finished goods.
  • (ERP) – Enterprise resource planning is the integrated management of core business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology.

Evolving from classic program (non web access) to Web Platform

SCADA system on the Cloud (cope with modern technology trend with access anywhere function)

Before we start the discussion in security topic, we do a quick introduction of big-data frameworks. Since the Hadoop and Apache Spark pay the key role on this architecture especially big data function. For more details, please see below:

Big-data frameworks:

Hadoop is essentially a distributed data infrastructure: It distributes massive data collections across multiple nodes within a cluster of commodity servers.

Features: 

  • Indexes and keeps track of that data
  • Enabling big-data processing and analytics

Apache Spark is an open-source cluster-computing framework.

  • Spark can interface with other file system including Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).

Remark: From technical point of view, Spark is a data-processing tool that operates on those distributed data collections; it doesn’t do distributed storage.

Go to discussion

As of today, more and more business migrated their system application to Cloud platform including SCADA industry. Since SCADA system belongs to energy, food and beverage, manufacturing, oil and gas, Power, Recycling, Transportation, water and waste water. And therefore cyber security news and articles lack of their news. Perhaps we can hear the news is that after nuclear power station encounter hacker or malware attack.

Actually SCADA now expand their user function to mobile device. Even though a mobile phone can do a remote monitoring of the system. With WebAccess, users can build an information management platform and improve the effectiveness of vertical markets (see below picture for reference) development and management.

Let’s think it over, the WebAccess SCADA system involved in energy, aerospace and public facilities control. However those product sound like your IT devices. The SCADA hits vulnerabilities and recorded in CVE database not the 1st time. We know that hundreds of United flights were delayed after the airline experienced a server malfunction on Jul 2015. Lets reader judge by yourself, let review their vulnerabilities found so far. Does it relate to SCADA vulnerability occurs which causes denied of services. Or it is really server malfunction?

Quote: Hundreds of United flights were delayed after the airline experienced a server malfunction on Jul 2015.

Quote: A United spokeswoman said that the glitch was caused by an internal technology issue and not an outside threat or hacker.

Advantech, a leader within the IPC global market. Advantech offers a comprehensive IPC product range that delivers reliability and stability for extreme environments, providing its customers with a one-stop shopping experience implementing Industry 4.0 and fulfilling their Industrial IoT needs. Let’s take a closer look on Advantech scada webaccess products vulnerabilities so far.

The vulnerabilities found on 2014 include an OS command injection, CVE-2014-8387, in the Advantech EKI-6340 series, a stack-based buffer overflow, CVE-2014-8388, in Advantech WebAccess, and a buffer overflow, CVE-2014-8386, in Advantech AdamView, CVE-2014-0770 – Advantech WebAccess SCADA webvact.ocx UserName Buffer Overflow. It looks that the design weakness keeps appear till today! For more details, please refer below details for references.

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2015-3947

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-5445

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-5443

Our observation in regards to above known vulnerabilities.

Regarding to WebAccess support specifications. It support the following open real-time data connectivity : OPC, Modbus, BACnet, DDE Server and the following open offline data connectivity: SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft Access Database. If the repository is the MS SQL server. The IT administrator must staying alert of the SQL injection vulnerability. Since the OS user privilege escalation via Windows Access Token abuse is possible also via SQL injection.

End discussion. Thank you.

Reference:

Information appending on 3rd Feb 2018 – additional technical information supplement. My study on SCADA system risk factors to nuclear facilities (see below):

Potential black force – digitize Godzilla

 

Cisco Aggregation Services Router 9000 Series IPv6 Fragment Header Denial of Service Vulnerability

Cisco Aggregation Services Router 9000 Series IPv6 Fragment Header Denial of Service Vulnerability

https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20180131-ipv6

IPv6 design limitation highlights by Cisco on 2013 RSA conference. Since ICMP header is in 2nd fragment. Defense mechanism especially RA guard no cue where to find (see my cartoon picture). Perhaps stateful firewall can doing the defense. Meanwhile, this issue told the world there is no real secure Internet Protocol! But this vulnerability occurs on Cisco only causes Denial of Service (reboot). At least no privileges escalation or data leakage.

Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance Remote Code Execution and Denial of Service Vulnerability

Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance Remote Code Execution and Denial of Service Vulnerability (below url for reference)

severity level – critical

https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20180129-asa1

We heard denial of service vulnerability to UTM firewall device in frequent. It looks that there is no any strange or feeling surprise. However similar XML Exploit method not new, it announced in RSA conference on 2016. The concept idea shown as below:

MS XML Exploit

1. Double free memory vulnerability in MSXML3.dll

2. Invokable with IE

3. Validating DTDs (Document Type Defintion) in an XML document

4. Invalid forward ID references

5. Memory occupied by a forward reference object is freed twice

6. Present in older heap manager used

Doubt – $530 million cryptocurrency heist

As we know the most common cryptocurrencies are Bitcoin, Ethereum,Ethereum Classic, Monero, Litecoin, OmiseGO, Ripple & Zcash. Fundamentally NEM Smart Asset System more secure than bitcoin. The NEM Blockchain utilizes a Proof-of-Importance calculation (rather than Bitcoin’s Proof-of-Work or PIVX’s Proof-of-Stake) to accomplish accord through a procedure that boosts dynamic support in the system. NEM is a peer-to-peercryptocurrency and blockchain platform launched on March 31, 2015. But the value of each coin is underestimation. Why hacker target to NEM. Do you think hacker willing to engage hacking in difficult way ?

Information update on 29th Jan 2018 – CNN claimed that this cryptocurrency heist is the biggest amount. Such huge value of financial lost wasn’t happened before! See below url for reference.

http://money.cnn.com/2018/01/29/technology/coincheck-cryptocurrency-exchange-hack-japan/index.html

Another reference:

My speculation – How’s coincheck loses ¥58 billion dollars value of cryptocurrency

My speculation – How’s coincheck loses ¥58 billion dollars value of cryptocurrency

Incident background:

Japan-based company said hackers broke in at 02:57am local time on Friday (12:57pm EST on Thursday, 25 January).

Financial lost: ¥58 billion dollars value of cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency type: NEM (XEM)

Victim: coincheck.com

Cyber attack historical incident record

The most recent cryptocurrency heist happened on February 2014. The victim firm is Mt. Gox. A bitcoin exchange in Japan. The heist value amount less than ¥48 billion. Coincheck started in August 2014 and is operated by Coincheck, inc. Similar of incident did not happen in past.

Coincheck current cyber defense mechanism

Coincheck provides Two-Factor Authentication and Cold Storage.

Remark: Cold storage in the context of Bitcoin refers to keeping a reserve of Bitcoins offline. Methods of cold storage include keeping bitcoins: On a USB drive or other storage media. On a Paper wallet.

Coincheck follow JBA’s guidelines to ensure customers can have use coincheck’s services in secure (For more details, please see below url for reference).

http://jada-web.jp/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/SummaryofGuidelinesforJADA_v1-0_20141023.pdf

Secure Random Number Genaration – Customer don’t need to worry about vulnerability because coincheck’s wallet use RFC6979, a secure way for generating random numbers.

Remark: RFC 6979 makes ECDSA DPA vulnerable at 2 levels.

  • Control all in first step of RFC, except x which is the secret key K=HMAC_K(V || 0x00 || int2bytes(x) || bits2bytes(h1))
  • s = kinv (h + r.d): kinv is not known but always fixed for the same input

Key factor found on this incident

Yusuke Otsuka, Chief Operating Officer of Coincheck, said the stolen funds were kept in an online ‘hot wallet’ as opposed to a much more secure offline ‘cold wallet.’ However the officical spokeman says that bitcoins are to be stored offline when they are not being traded. Meanwhile CEO Koichiro Wada said its bitcoins were indeed stored offline but that the more than 5 million NEM coins that were stolen were not.

Observation:

According to the NEM (XEM) platform architecture (refer to above diagram) and the statement provides by the CEO (see below). A hints bring my attention to their company internal network. See whether is there insider threat happen in their office?

Quote: “bitcoins were indeed stored offline but that the more than 5 million NEM coins that were stolen were not.”

Speculation:

It looks that implant malicious code then infiltrate malware to the distributed ledge system not easy to success. Since two factor authentication has been implemented. And therefore each transaction will be acknowledged on both parties (bitcoin exchange and end user). May be you can say hacker can counterfeit the SMS message by SS7  flaw. However such huge amount of transaction will be waken support staff.  So I believe that the cyber incident happen this time may have following possibilities.

  1. Phishing email embedded web site cross site scripting and CSRF token is a popular way to stolen the user credential.
  2. Admin console or workstation encountered malware infection.
  3. A Zero day encountered on their open source application.

Summary:

Above assumption is my speculation on hearsay evidence and headline news. Let’ me keep my eye open and provide the status update to you guys afterwards.

Reference – information update on 28th Jan 2018

https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/01/27/national/cryptocurrency-exchange-coincheck-loses-58-billion-hacking-attack/

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-japan-cryptocurrency/hacked-tokyo-cryptocurrency-exchange-to-repay-owners-425-million-idUSKBN1FH03D

Information update on 29th Jan 2018 – CNN claimed that this cryptocurrency heist is the biggest amount. Such huge value of financial lost wasn’t happened before! See below url for reference. As we know the most common cryptocurrencies are Bitcoin, Ethereum,Ethereum Classic, Monero, Litecoin, OmiseGO, Ripple & Zcash. Fundamentally NEM Smart Asset System more secure than bitcoin. The NEM Blockchain utilizes a Proof-of-Importance calculation (rather than Bitcoin’s Proof-of-Work or PIVX’s Proof-of-Stake) to accomplish accord through a procedure that boosts dynamic support in the system. NEM is a peer-to-peercryptocurrency and blockchain platform launched on March 31, 2015. But the value of each coin is underestimation. Why hacker target to NEM. Do you think hacker willing to engage hacking in difficult way ?

http://money.cnn.com/2018/01/29/technology/coincheck-cryptocurrency-exchange-hack-japan/index.html

Data Privacy Day 2018 Livestream on 28th Jan 2018

In last hundred years, the record of information includes storage of information without big changes. A revolution appears enforce computer technology jump to another generation computer world with big data and digitization technology. Cyber attack wreak havoc recently. In order to avoid any mistake given by antivirus program. The antivirus vendor enforce their defensive technique. They keep track your daily activities simultaneously. Perhaps you and me do not empower to 3rd party doing similar of jobs. But what we can do today protect your personal data privacy?

The Data Privacy Day 2018-Live From LinkedIn. Data Privacy Day 2018 Livestream on 28th Jan 2018 (see below url for reference)

https://staysafeonline.org/dpd18-live/

 

 

 

cpp-ethereum vulnerabilities do not ignore!

Preface:

The cyber attack wreak havoc today. Perhaps system applications and operation system hard to avoid vulnerability occurs because of short development cycle. Crypto currency might change the financial world. However there are more and more topics are under development.

Technology background

Ethereum is an open software platform based on blockchain technology that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications.

What language is Ethereum written in?

There are four official reference implementations available (see below)

Golang, C++, Python and  Java

The non-officially but fully working program language are Rust, Ruby, JavaScript and Solidity. However there are design limitation occurs on Golang which causes software developers decide not to use.

Why “Go” language not have been chosen by software program developers?

The question about generics in Go is years old, and has been discussed up and down and forth and back across the Go forums, newsgroups, and email lists. However Go is a language with an intentionally restricted feature set; one of the features that Go leaves out being user-defined generic types and functions.

In short, it looks that Go language lack of traditional program language flexibility. Perhaps Go (Golang) libraries work best for scientific computing. A comment consensus is that Go might evolve into the perfect high performance computing language for scientific use. And therefore programming developer prefer to make use of other programming language.

However cyber world similar a dangerous zone. The operation system, application and hardware are difficult to avoid their design weakness (vulnerabilities). The situation sounds like a cancer in Human body. The cancer evoluted by a normal human being cell.

There are vulnerabilities found on cpp-ethereum last year end. A status update released on 18th Jan 2018.

Should you have interest of this topic, please find below details for reference.

An exploitable improper authorization vulnerability exists in admin_nodeInfo API of cpp-ethereum’s JSON-RPC

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-12113

An exploitable unhandled exception vulnerability exists in multiple APIs of CPP-Ethereum JSON-RPC. Specially crafted JSON requests can cause an unhandled exception resulting in denial of service.

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-12119

An exploitable improper authorization vulnerability exists in miner_setGasPrice API of cpp-ethereum’s JSON-RPC

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-12116

An exploitable improper authorization vulnerability exists in miner_setEtherbase API of cpp-ethereum’s JSON-RPC

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-12115

An exploitable improper authorization vulnerability exists in admin_addPeer API of cpp-ethereum’s JSON-RPC

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-12112

An exploitable improper authorization vulnerability exists in admin_peers API of cpp-ethereum’s JSON-RPC

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-12114

An exploitable improper authorization vulnerability exists in miner_stop API of cpp-ethereum’s JSON-RPC

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-12118

An exploitable improper authorization vulnerability exists in miner_start API of cpp-ethereum’s JSON-RPC

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-12117

An exploitable information leak/denial of service vulnerability exists in the libevm (Ethereum Virtual Machine) `create2` opcode handler of CPP-Ethereum. A specially crafted smart contract code can cause an out-of-bounds read leading to memory disclosure or denial of service.

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-14457

Summary:

There were 40,135 transactions on Ethereum blockchain on 5/17/2017. On January 25, 2018 Ethereum now is a bit over $1050. Perhaps of the crypto currency value it will lure the interest of the hacker. As usual another vulnerabilities or zero day cyber attacks might happen later on. So make sure that you have remediation and mitigation procedure if your Ethereum back-end is develop by C++.

 

CVE-2018-0486 Staying alert with your single sign-on application especially IDP vulnerability

CVE-2018-0486: Shibboleth(SAML IDP) open source vulnerability is currently awaiting analysis. For more details, see below url for reference:

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-0486

During my penetration test engagement in past. I was surprised that no matter airline , financial and retail industries web online application solutions are deployed open source single-sign on resources. An incident occurred in Equifax which awaken the business world that open source application has potential inherent risk. It will jeopardize your firm reputation. It looks that a very popular SAML IdP open source has vulnerability occurs. What is your comment? Remark: You can also find the details on attached picture diagram.

Apple enforce Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities remediation

About Apple security updates announcement (see below url for reference)

https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT208463

About security updates announcement, the objectives is going remediate multiple vulnerabilities.As usual, apple released security update but no descriptions are available yet. Perhaps without detail information provided by vendor (Apple). However I  was speculated  that the remediation step will be focus on the following protection technique. ARM (Protection Unit (PU))

The advantages of this system are:

• Access control held entirely on-chip (no need for any off-chip tables)

• Provides four levels of access control, cache and write-buffer control

• Separate control over instruction and data caches.

The disadvantages are:

• Small number of regions

• Restrictions on region size and alignment.

As a result,  the 3rd party unmanaged apps especially game might have problem occurs!

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