The achilles heels of Ethereum (block chain technology)

Preface

What is Achilles heel: a small problem or weakness in a person or system that can result in failure. If you familiar with Chinese Kung Fu,  the key word “achilles heels” you might not feeling unfamiliar.

Wake the world attention – Ethereum security incidents

Jun 2016 –  Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) attack – Code Issue Leads to $60 Million Ether Theft

Jul 2017South Korea’s largest Bitcoin/Ethereum cryptocurrency exchange ‘Bithumb’ hacked and over $1 Million in cryptocurrencies stolen

Ethereum claimed itself that he is the most Secure Public Blockchain. He is on the way overtaking Bitcoin technology. But what’s the key factor causes cyber security incidents happened in past?

The technical weakness summarized below:

  1. The Ethereum network itself might not vulnerable. “DAO” stands for “Decentralized Autonomous Organization”. It’s basically a type of application (a smart contract system) that can be deployed on the Ethereum network/blockchain. The hacker took advantage of a vulnerability in the contract code, written in the JavaScript allows a single participant to “drain” Ethereum tokens from the collected pool of all the investor money to a separate personal pool, which “the attacker” can then use by himself.
  2. A warning about the mempool transaction replacement mechanism.Implementors should take this into account and try to create contract mechanisms that do not rely on mempool replacement if they wish to have their implementations work with current implementations.
  3. Large Hashrate Pools Accidental suspend the services. Pools with larger hash-rates have recently been using the built in feature to only process their nodes own transactions. High volume of transaction which waiting for confirmation will slow down the performance of the pool causes services suspended.

Sample survey – in regards to cyber security incidents in the past

Investigation step 1 – Does Ethereum client have memory pool?

Yes, similar concept of memory pool definition will be valid in client side. The similar function  is for keeps transactions like Bitcoin’s mempool. The naming convention of the key term is the Transaction Pool, or TxPool in the code (see below)

var (
    // Transaction Pool Errors
   ...
)

const (
    maxQueued = 64 // max limit of queued txs per address
)

...
// TxPool contains all currently known transactions. Transactions
// enter the pool when they are received from the network or submitted
// locally. They exit the pool when they are included in the blockchain.
//
// The pool separates processable transactions (which can be applied to the
// current state) and future transactions. Transactions move between those
// two states over time as they are received and processed.
type TxPool struct {
    quit         chan bool // Quiting channel
    ...

Inherent risk & design limitation

i. Transactions may reverted

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM Level)

Python – If C calls D.foo(), and foo does a throw ((bad jump, out-of-gas, or any other exception), as a result the entire transaction reverted.

Known bug bug in geth v1.4.19 and v1.5.2 – Geth was failing to revert empty account deletions when the transaction causing the deletions of empty accounts ended with an an out-of-gas exception. An additional issue was found in Parity, where the Parity client incorrectly failed to revert empty account deletions in a more limited set of contexts involving out-of-gas calls to precompiled contracts; the new Geth behavior matches Parity’s, and empty accounts will cease to be a source of concern in general in about one week once the state clearing process finishes.

Remark: out of gas definition – The gas cost can only be estimated until the transaction is executed against the actual contract state at the time of execution on the blockchain. If the transaction run out of gas before transaction complete. EVM exceptions result in all gas being consumed, and the transaction being rolled back. Gas is not returned if a transaction is unsuccessful because otherwise malicious users could spam the network with unsuccessful transactions.

ii. Authorization security consideration – Never use tx.origin for authorization (Detail 1). If your wallet had checked msg.sender for authorization, it would get the address of the attack wallet, instead of the owner address. But by checking tx.origin, it gets the original address that kicked off the transaction, which is still the owner address. The attack wallet instantly drains all your funds (Detail 2).

wallet contract – Detail 1

pragma solidity ^0.4.11;

// THIS CONTRACT CONTAINS A BUG - DO NOT USE
contract TxUserWallet {
    address owner;

    function TxUserWallet() {
        owner = msg.sender;
    }

    function transferTo(address dest, uint amount) {
        require(tx.origin == owner);
        dest.transfer(amount);
    }
}

attack wallet – Detail 2

pragma solidity ^0.4.0;

contract TxAttackWallet {
    address owner;

    function TxAttackWallet() {
        owner = msg.sender;
    }

    function() {
        TxUserWallet(msg.sender).transferTo(owner, msg.sender.balance);
    }
}

Ethereum enhance the programming language of protection.But what’ the reason let’s the Biggest Ethereum and Bitcoin Exchanges Got Hacked?

About South Korea’s Largest Ethereum Exchange Was Hacked – Headline news hints that the attackers are setting their sights on people’s digital currency wallets (see following url for reference) http://fortune.com/2017/07/05/bitcoin-ethereum-bithumb-hack/. From technical point of view, this is client side data breach instead of server side, right.  Since the case is under South Korea law enforcement investigation. No details provides in the meantime. For more detail, please read following url http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/national/2017/07/03/52/0302000000AEN20170703010400320F.html

My comment in regards to this case – since cyber incident more possibility happens on computer user negligence. Yes, I agree that we must focus the system and application design limitation. Since no any conclusion or prediction this moment. But a hints would like to bring to your consideration . Be my guest, see below detail for reference.

Fundamental design weakness of Ethereum node implemented in Go

Reference: When you are going to unlock account.   The command tool Geth will be used.  You’ll be prompted to type in the password afterward.

geth --unlock <YOUR_ACCOUNT_ADDRESS> --password <YOUR_PASSWORD>

A security concerns was happend here! In the earlier versions of Geth, providing the password as a parameter would cause the password to show up in the Geth log.  So our clever reader will speculated the story and final result properly. There is not required to mention the details again, right?

RemarkGeth is a multipurpose command line tool that runs a full Ethereum node implemented in Go. It offers three interfaces: the command line subcommands and options, a Json-rpc server and an interactive console.

Have a nice weekend.

Reference:

Rouge-et-noir , they are all going to achieve this objective (blockchain or Hyperledger)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


	

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